DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/stp2018/133168

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS OF FRICTION STIR WELDING

S. O. Plitchenko

Abstract


Purpose. The study is aimed at improving the procedure for determining the optimum radius of the shoulder of a special tool for friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminum alloys and its change depending on the variations of base metal thickness. Methodology. The friction stir welding process was carried out on specially designed equipment. The material for the studies were 1.85 mm thick plates made of aluminum alloy AMg3 with a chemical content of alloying elements within the range of the brand composition. The temperature in the welding zone and the pressure from the tool on the edges of the welded joint were determined using a specially designed research stand. The pressing force of the tool to the base metal during welding was measured with a dynamometer type DC-0.1 with the indicator head. Findings. During the research, the degree of metal heating and the quality of the welded joint formation were determined at various ratios of the rotation frequency of the working tool and the normal pressure to the joining edges. The research allowed determining the influence of FSW process parameters on the temperature of metal heating in the action zone of the working tool shoulder. Originality. The experimental studies allowed to determine the effect of the working tool rotation speed and the magnitude of its pressure on the welded metal during welding on the temperature in the weld zone. Increasing the tool rotation frequency allows to reduce pressure of the working tool during welding, which results in more efficient and high-quality welding process. It has been established that it is possible to obtain better welded joints at a temperature of about 0.7 Tm and to determine the optimal temperature range in the welding zone. Practical value. The study resulted in determination of the conditions for achieving the permanent softening effect during friction stir welding and the optimum temperatures in the welding zone for the tested alloy. The main technological parameters of the working tool are calculated and their influence on the generation of thermal energy in the welding zone is determined. The thermal analysis of the welding process resulted in development of the procedure for determining the technological parameters of the working tool and its rotation frequency depending on the weld metal thickness.


Keywords


friction stir welding; thermal energy; working tool; welding modes; aluminium alloys; optimum temperature

Full Text:

PDF HTML

References


Vakulenko, I. O., Plitchenko, S. O., & Nadegdin, Y. L. (2012). Use of technology of friction stir welding for aluminum alloys. Visnyk Dnipropetrovskoho natsionalnoho universytetu zaliznychnoho transportu imeni akademika V. Lazariana, 41, 230-233. (in Ukrainian)

Vakulenko, I. O., Mitiaiev, O. A., & Plitchenko, S. O. (2014). Pro strukturni peretvorennia pry zvariuvanni tertiam z peremishuvanniam aliuminiievoho splavu. Novi materialy i tekhnolohii v metalurhii ta ma-shynobuduvanni, 1, 8-10. (in Ukrainian)

Vyll, V. Y. (1970). Svarka metallov trenyem. Leningrad: Mashinostroyeniye. (in Russian)

Yerokhin, A. A. (1973). Osnovy svarki plavleniem. Fiziko-khimicheskie zakonomernosti. Moscow: Ma-shinostroenie. (in Russian)

Makarov, E. L., Korolev, S. A., Shtrikman, M. M., & Kashchuk, N. M. (2010). Modelirovanie teplovykh protsessov pri friktsionnoy svarke. Svarka i diagnostika, 3, 21-25. (in Russian)

Vakulenko, I. O., Plitchenko, S. O., & Nadegdin, Y. L. (2012). UA Patent No. 75698. Kyiv: Ukrainskyi instytut intelektualnoi vlasnosti (Ukrpatent). (in Ukraіnian)

Poklyatskiy, A. G., Klochkov, I. N., & Motrunich, S. I. (2015). Nekotorye preimushchestva stykovykh soedineniy tonkolistovykh deformiruemykh alyuminievykh splavov AMg5M i AMg6M, poluchennykh svarkoy treniem s peremeshivaniem, po sravneniyu s TIG. Avtomaticheskaya svarka, 7, 18-23. (in Russian)

Vakulenko, I. O., Plitchenko, S. O. (2017). Determination activation energy of friction stir welding. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference Young Scientists Welding and Related Technologies, May 23-26, 2017, 54-58. (in English)

Hayes, R. W., & Hayes, W. C. (1982). On the mechanism of delayed discontinuous plastic flow in an age-hardened nickel alloy. Acta Metallurgica, 30 (7), 1295-1301. doi: 10.1016/0001-6160(82)90148-1 (in English)

Thomas, W.M., Nicholas, E.D., Needham, J.C. & et al. (1991). GB Patent No. 9125978.8 (Int. Pat. Application № PCT/GB 92/02203). (in English)

Colligan, K. (2003). US Patent No. 6,669,075 B2 (Int. Pat. Application № 10/140,797). (in English)

Li, D., Yang, X., Cui, L., He, F., & Zhang, X. (2015). Investigation of stationary shoulder friction stir welding of aluminum alloy 7075-T651. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 222, 391–398. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2015.03.036 (in English)

Mishara, R. S., & Mahoney, M. W. (Eds.) (2007). Friction Stir Welding and Processing. Ohio: ASM International. (in English)

Xiao, Y., Zhan, H., Gu, Y., & Li, Q. (2017). Modeling heat transfer during friction stir welding using a meshless particle method. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 104, 288-300. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2016.08.047 (in English)

Su, H., Wu Song, C., Bachmann, M., & Rethmeier, M. (2015). Numerical modeling for the effect of pin profiles on thermal and material flow characteristics in friction stir welding. Materials & Design, 77, 114-125. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2015.04.012 (in English)

Shneider, J. A. (2007). Temperature distribution and resulting metal flow. In J. A. Shneider (Ed.), Friction Stir Welding and Processing, (37-49). Ohio: ASM International. (in English)

Villegas, J. F., Dominguez, J. V., Ochoa, G. V., & Unfried-Silgado, J. (2017). Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Friction-Stir Welding Tool Used in Aluminum Alloys Joints. Contemporary Engineering Sciences, 10(34), 1659-1667. doi: 10.12988/ces.2017.711156 (in English)


GOST Style Citations


  1. Вакуленко, І. О. Використання технології зварювання тертям з перемішуванням алюмінієвого сплаву / І. О. Вакуленко, С. О. Плітченко, Ю. Л. Надеждін // Вісн. Дніпропетр. нац. ун-ту залізн. трансп. ім. акад. В. Лазаряна. – Дніпропетровськ, 2012. – Вип. 41. – С. 230–233.
  2. Вакуленко, І. О. Про структурні перетворення при зварюванні тертям з перемішуванням алюмінієвого сплаву / І. О. Вакуленко, О. А. Мітяєв, С. О. Плітченко // Нові матеріали і технології в металургії та машинобудуванні. – 2014. – № 1. – С. 8–10.
  3. Вилль, В. И. Сварка металлов трением / В. И. Вилль. – Ленинград : Машиностроение, 1970. – 178 с.
  4. Ерохин, А. А. Основы сварки плавлением. Физико-химические закономерности / А. А. Ерохин. – Москва : Машиностроение, 1973. – 448 с.
  5. Моделирование тепловых процессов при фрикционной сварке / Э. Л. Макаров, С. А. Королев, М. М. Штрикман, Н. М. Кащук // Сварка и диагностика. – 2010. – № 3. – С. 21–25.
  6. Пат. 75698 Україна, МПК В 23 К 1/00. Спосіб зварювання тертям з перемішуванням сплавів на основі алюмінію / Вакуленко І. О., Плітченко С. О., Надеждін Ю. Л. ; заявник та патентовласник Дніпропетр. нац. ун-т залізн. трансп. ім. акад. В. Лазаряна. – № U201206529 ; заявл. 29.05.12 ; опубл. 10.12.12, Бюл. № 23. – 4 с.
  7. Покляцкий, А. Г. Некоторые преимущества стыковых соединений тонколистовых деформируемых алюминиевых сплавов АМг5М и АМг6М, полученных сваркой трением с перемешиванием, по сравнению с ТИГ / А. Г. Покляцкий, И. Н. Клочков, С. И. Мотрунич // Автоматическая сварка. – 2015. – № 7. – С. 18–23.
  8. Determination activation energy of friction stir welding / I. O. Vakulenko, S. O. Plitchenko // Welding and Related Technologies : Proc. of 9th Intern. Conf. of Young Scientists (23–26 May 2017, Kyiv, Ukraine). – Kyiv, 2017. – Р. 54–58.
  9. Hayes, R. W. On the mechanism of delayed discontinuous plastic flow in an age-hardened nickel alloy / R. W. Hayes, W. C. Hayes // Acta Metallurgica. – 1982. – Vol. 30. – Іss. 7. – P. 1295–1301. doi: 10.1016/0001-6160(82)90148-1
  10. Int. Pat. Application № PCT/GB 92/02203; GB Pat. Application № 9125978.8. Friction Stir Butt Welding / Thomas W. M., Nicholas E. D., Needham J. C. et al. – Publ. 1991.
  11. Int. Pat. Application № 10/140,797; US Pat. № 6,669,075 B2. Tapered Friction Stir Welding Tool / Colligan K. – Publ. 30.12.2003.
  12. Investigation of stationary shoulder friction stir welding of aluminum alloy 7075-T651 / Dongxiao Li, Xinqi Yang, Lei Cui, Fangzhou He, Xu Zhang // Journal of Materials Processing Technology. – 2015. – Vol. 222. – P. 391–398. doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2015.03.036
  13. Friction stir welding and processing / Editors Rajiv S. Mishra, Murray W. Mahoney. – Ohio : ASM International, 2007. – 360 p.
  14. Modeling heat transfer during friction stir welding using a meshless particle method / Yihua Xiao, Haifei Zhan, Yuantong Gu, Qinghua Li // Intern. Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. – 2017. – Vol. 104. – P. 288–300. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2016.08.047
  15. Numerical modeling for the effect of pin profiles on thermal and material flow characteristics in friction stir welding / Hao Su, Chuan Song Wu, Marcel Bachmann, Michael Rethmeier // Materials & Design. – 2015. – Vol. 77. – P. 114–125. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2015.04.012
  16. Shneider, J. A. Temperature distribution and resulting metal flow / J. A. Shneider // Friction Stir Welding and Processing. – Ohio : ASM International, 2007. – Р. 37–49.
  17. Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Friction-Stir Welding Tool Used in Aluminum Alloys Joints / J. F. Villegas, J. V. Dominguez, G. V. Ochoa, J. Unfried-Silgado // Contemporary Engineering Sciences. – 2017. – Vol. 10. – Іss. 34. – P. 1659–1667. doi: 10.12988/ces.2017.711156




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

ISSN 2307–3489 (Print)
ІSSN 2307–6666 (Online)