DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/stp2018/140551

ASSESMENT OF THE RAILWAY INFLUENCE ON THE HEAVY METAL ACCUMULATION IN SOIL

А. V. Samarska, Y. V. Zelenko

Abstract


Purpose. The scientific paper aims at analyzing the current state of the railway infrastructure soil contamination with heavy metals (HM), namely, the three stations of Prydniprovska railway: Kamianske-Pasazhyrske, Zaporizhzhia-Kamianske and Trytuzna. Methodology. The research object is the soil of the above mentioned railway stations, the research subject is the total content of HM. Sampling was carried out every 15 m between and outside both rails up to the end of railway ties. The total area of the investigated sites is 600 m2. The total form of Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Mn concentration was determined by the atomic absorption spectrometry method. The obtained data were compared with the background concentration of HM for Dnipropetrovsk oblast and the results of analyzing the reference control located at a distance of 250 m from the railway stations. Findings. It is found out that rail transport is a source of HM emission into soil. The findings indicate that the soil state of the Kamianske-Pasazhyrske station corresponds to a low ecological risk and a low degree of pollution, since the station is a passenger one only and pollution occurs mostly due to the friction of wheels and rails and that of the pantograph and overhead system, as well as the pesticide use. The soil contamination of the Zaporizhzhia-Kamianske station is characterized by a considerable potential environmental risk and a very high degree of pollution. This station is a cargo-passenger one, and this pollution level is mainly due to loading and unloading processes. The soil of the Trytuzna station is characterized by an average potential ecological risk and a moderate degree of pollution. Although this station is mainly used for the freight trains reformation, but due to the transportation of large volumes of bulk ore cargoes HM fall into soil. Besides, the station is not electrified. Recommendations for assessment of the soil pollution levels are given. Originality. For the first time the potential ecological risk of soil contamination was determined on the basis of the physical and chemical analysis of the HM content in the soil of the above-mentioned stations. Practical value. The results of the study can be used as a justification of the reasonability of introducing the environmental monitoring programs for the railway land, the environmental protection measures for the soil treatment from HM, correcting the railway exclusion zone, as well as protection of adjacent territories from the propagation and accumulation of the mentioned pollutants. The necessity and urgency of the constant control of the HM content in the railway soil and the relevance of the research continuation in this scientific direction are confirmed on the basis of the received data.


Keywords


heavy metals; railway transport; soil, railway stations, potential environmental risk

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References


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