DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/stp2019/159508

DETERMINING ZONES OF CHEMICAL POLLUTION IN THE CITIES AND ASSESMENT OF CHRONIC DISEASES RISKS

M. M. Biliaiev, T. I. Rusakova

Abstract


Purpose. The scientific paper is aimed at creating a methodology of chemical pollution zones in the territories of industrial cities and accounting the possibility of assessing the risks of chronic diseases. Methodology. The method of numerical calculation of nitrogen dioxide concentration in atmospheric air is based on the solution of three-dimensional impurity transfer equations, which directly comes from a permanently stationary source (industrial enterprise) and a linearly distributed source (highway). The method takes into account the process of chemical transformation of impurities and photolysis in the atmosphere. The numerical model is based on the splitting of model equations and their solution using an implicit difference scheme. Findings. The created software allows conducting computational experiments to calculate the areas of atmospheric air pollution with nitrogen dioxide, taking into account the interaction of impurities coming from various types of pollution sources and meteorological parameters. On the basis of the obtained field of nitrogen dioxide concentration, an assessment of the change in the risk of chronic intoxication associated with atmospheric air pollution with nitrogen dioxide over 50 years was carried out. Originalitys. For the first time the regularities of changes in the level of atmospheric air pollution with nitrogen dioxide have been established with due regard to the mutual influence of emissions from the industrial enterprise and highway and their chemical transformation in the atmosphere. The risk of chronic intoxication has been calculated and its changes have been analyzed with due regard to the interaction of emissions from the industrial enterprise and highway, it leads up to 10% of risk increasing. Practical value. Authors developed a mathematical model and method of numerical calculation. Software created on their base allows obtaining quickly quantitative results necessary in developing the system for monitoring the man-made loaded regions of the city. The obtained patterns of impurities dispersion allow us to estimate the levels of pollution in urban areas of the city by emissions from industrial enterprises and highways. Accounting of the mutual impact of emissions and the calculation of risks of intoxication allows solving environmental problems arising in the development of transport strategy in cities.


Keywords


industrial enterprise, highway, dispersion of impurities, chemical interaction, risk of disease

References


Alymov, V. T., & Tarasova, N. P. (2004). Tekhnogennyy risk. Analiz i otsenka: uchebebnoe posobie dlya vuzov. Moscow: Akademkniga. (in Russian)

Marchuk, G. I. (1982). Matematicheskoye modelirovaniye v probleme okruzhayushchey sredy. Moscow: Nauka. (in Russian)

Menshikov, V. V., Shvyryaev, A. A., & Zakharova, T. V. (2003). Analiz riska pri sistematicheskom zagryaznenii atmosfernogo vozdukha opasnymi khimicheskimi veshchestvami: uchebnoe posobie. Moscow: Izdatelstvo MGU. (in Russian)

Biliaiev, N. N., Rusakova, T. I., Kolesnik, V. Ye., & Pavlichenko, А. V. (2016). The predicted level of atmospheric air pollution in the city area affected by highway. Scientific Bulletin of National Mining University, 1, 90-98. (in Russian)

Stoetsky, V. F., Golinko, V. I., & Dranishnikov, L. V. (2014). Risk assessment in man-caused accidents. Scientific Bulletin of National Mining University, 3, 117-124. (in Russian)

Zgurovskiy, M. Z., Skopetskiy, V. V., Khrushch, V. K., & Belyaev, N. N. (1997). Chislennoe modelirovanie rasprostraneniya zagryazneniya v okruzhayushchey srede. Kyiv: Naukova Dumka. (in Russian)

Berlov, O. V. (2016). Atmosphere protection in case of emergency during transportation of dangerous cargo. Science and Transport Progress, 1(61), 48-54. doi: 10.15802/stp2016/60953 (in English)

Hvidtfeldt, U. A., Ketzel, M., Sørensen, M., Hertel, O., Khan, J., Brandt, J., & Raaschou-Nielsen, O. (2018). Evaluation of the Danish AirGIS air pollution modeling system against measured concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and black carbon. Environmental Epidemiology, 2(2). doi: 10.1097/ee9.0000000000000014 (in English)

Gómez-Losada, Á., Pires, J. C. M., & Pino-Mejías, R. (2018). Modelling background air pollution exposure in urban environments: Implications for epidemiological research. Environmental Modelling & Software, 106, 13-21. doi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2018.02.011 (in English)

Liu, C.-H., & Leung, D. Y. C. (2008). Numerical study on the ozone formation inside street canyons using a chemistry box model. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20(7), 832-837. doi: 10.1016/s1001-0742(08)62134-8 (in English)

Mărunţălu, O., Lăzăroiu, G., & Bondrea, D. A. (2015). Mathematical model for air pollutants dispersion emitted by fuel combustion. U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series D, 77(4), 229-236. (in English)

Merah, A., & Noureddine, A. (2017). Modeling and Analysis of NOx and O3 in a Street Canyon. Der Pharma Chemica, 9(19), 66-72. (in English)

Overman, H. T. (2009). Simulation model for NOx distribution in a street canyon with air purifying pavement. (Master thesis). University Twente, Enschede, Netherlands. (in English)

Venkataraman, C., Brauer, M., Tibrewal, K., Sadavarte, P., Ma, Q., Cohen, A., … Wang, S. (2018). Source influence on emission pathways and ambient PM2.5 pollution over India (2015–2050). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(11), 8017-8039. doi: 10.5194/acp-18-8017-2018 (in English)

Zhong, J., Cai, X.-M., & Bloss, W. J. (2015). Modelling the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon: Using large-eddy simulation. Environmental Pollution, 200, 42-52. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2015.02.009 (in English)


GOST Style Citations


  1. Алымов, В. Т. Техногенный риск. Анализ и оценка : учеб. пособие для вузов / В. Т. Алымов, Н. П. Тарасова. – Москва : Академкнига, 2004. – 118 с.
  2. Марчук, Г. И. Математическое моделирование в проблеме окружающей среды / Г. И. Марчук. – Москва : Наука, 1982. – 320 с.
  3. Меньшиков, В. В. Анализ риска при систематическом загрязнении атмосферного воздуха опасными химическими веществами : учеб. пособие / В. В. Меньшиков, А. А. Швыряев, Т. В. Захарова. – Москва : Изд-во МГУ, 2003. – 245 с.
  4. Прогноз уровня загрязнения атмосферного воздуха в зоне влияния городских автомагистралей / Н. Н. Беляев, Т. И. Русакова, В. Е. Колесник, А. В. Павличенко // Наук. вісн. Нац. гірн. ун-ту. – 2016. – № 1. – С. 90–98.
  5. Стоецкий, В. Ф. Оценка риска при авариях техногенного характера / В. Ф. Стоецкий, В. И. Голинько, Л. В. Дранишников // Наук. вісн. Нац. гірн. ун-ту. – 2014. – № 3. – С. 117–124.
  6. Численное моделирование распространения загрязнения в окружающей среде / М. З. Згуровский, В. В. Скопецкий, В. К. Хрущ, Н. Н. Беляев. – Киев : Наук. думка, 1997. – 368 с.
  7. Berlov, O. V. Atmosphere protection in case of emergency during transportation of dangerous cargo / O. V. Berlov // Наука та прогрес транспорту. – 2016. – № 1 (61). – С. 48–54. doi: 10.15802/stp2016/60953
  8. Evaluation of the Danish AirGIS air pollution modeling system against measured concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and black carbon / U. A. Hvidtfeldt, M. Ketzel, M. Sørensen, O. Hertel, J. Khan, J. Brandt, O. Raaschou-Nielsen // Environmental Epidemiology. – 2018. – Vol. 2. – Iss. 2. doi: 10.1097/EE9.0000000000000014
  9. Gómez-Losada, Á. Modelling background air pollution exposure in urban environments: Implications for epidemiological research / Álvaro Gómez-Losada, José Carlos M. Pires, Rafael Pino-Mejías // Environmental Modelling & Software. – 2018. – Vol. 106. – P. 13–21. doi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2018.02.011
  10. Liu, C.-H. Numerical study on the ozone formation inside street canyons using a chemistry box model / Chun-Ho Liu, Dennis Y. C. Leung // Journal of Environmental Sciences. – 2008. – Vol. 20. – Iss. 7. – P. 832–837. doi: 10.1016/s1001-0742(08)62134-8
  11. Mărunţălu, O. Mathematical model for air pollutants dispersion emitted by fuel combustion / Oliver Mărunţălu, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, Dana Andreya Bondrea // U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series D. – 2015. – Vol. 77. – Iss. 4. – P. 229–236.
  12. Merah, A. Modeling and Analysis of NOx and O3 in a Street Canyon / A. Merah, A. Noureddine // Der Pharma Chemica. – 2017. – Vol. 9. – Iss. 19. – P. 66–72.
  13. Overman, H. T. Simulation model for NOx distribution in a street canyon with air purifying pavement : Master thesis / Н. Т. Overman ; University Twente. – Enschede, Netherlands, 2009. – 107 р.
  14. Source influence on emission pathways and ambient PM2.5 pollution over India (2015–2050) / C. Venkataraman, М. Brauer, К. Tibrewal [et al.] // Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. – 2018. – Vol. 18. – Iss. 11. – P. 8017–8039. doi: 10.5194/acp-18-8017-2018
  15. Zhong, J. Modelling the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon: Using large-eddy simulation / J. Zhong, X.-М. Cai, W. J. Bloss // Environmental Pollution. – 2015. – Vol. 200. – P. 42–52. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2015.02.009




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

ISSN 2307–3489 (Print)
ІSSN 2307–6666 (Online)