Power quality complex estimation at alternating current traction substations
Keywords:power quality, alternating current, three-phase system, traction substation, measurement, harmonic, distortion, unbalance, spectrum, powers flow
Purpose. At alternating current traction substations are used three-winding transformers. This scheme comes to significant costs from power quality disturbances at each supplier. The most significant power quality indices at alternating current traction substation are voltage deviation, voltage unbalance and harmonic distortion. The purpose of this article is power quality complex estimation at two traction substations that work on the one district of traction network. Methodology. The measurements were made according to accepted program during 24 hours with 1 sec discretization. A few power quality analyzers PM175 are used to record data with time synchronization. The scheme of measurements means that devices are connected through current and potential transformers at the each level of voltage. Findings. Voltage level at different substation is various due to power losses in primary network. The voltage in one phase of 1-st substation is bigger than in other phases. Voltage THD values according to standard requirements are below norm only for primary 154 kV networks. For another traction and regional networks voltage THD values are above norm value. The voltage unbalances in 154 kV networks are below voltage unbalance in 35 kV networks. Besides the voltage unbalance in 154 kV network is below 2 % that complies with the requirements of standard. At the same time we can consider that voltage and current spectrums consist from discrete harmonics with frequencies that multiples of the fundamental frequency. Originality. Voltages at the connection points of traction substations to supply lines are complex stationary random process that determines the voltage mode of the external power supply system of each traction substation. The flows of active and reactive power of the higher harmonics at AC traction substation are directed opposite power of the fundamental harmonic. The power flows on higher harmonics create the disturbing impact on related devices. The total power at AC traction substation consists of 61,8 % of the active power, 32,5 % of the reactive power of the 1st harmonic and 5,7 % of the distortion power in the quadrature components. Practical value. Analysis of the quadrature components suggests that traditional approaches to reactive power compensation at the fundamental frequency will be sufficiently effective. But the influence of the distortion power on reducing energy losses must be also researched. Besides reactive power compensation should be considered with the issue of reducing the basic power quality indices to standardized values.
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