DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/stp2020/203757

THE EFFICIENCY OF WORKING CYCLES IN THE RAPID INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH THE EXTENDED WORKING STROKE

P. М. Hashchuk, S. V. Nikipchuk

Abstract


Purpose: The investigation covers the efficiency of working cycles in the rapid internal combustion engine with the extended working stroke. The extended working stroke is applied in so-called Atkinson/Miller engines that are considered to be more effective than traditional Otto engines. Methodology. In order to identify purely distinctive features of different working cycles, they were investigated in an idealized form using the concepts of a conditional working cycle, quantitative as well as qualitative characteristics of the working fluid. Findings. The investigation illustrates the following: 1) the Otto engine should have a significantly larger displacement to function the same way as the Atkinson/Muller engine; 2) if the mechanic work is predetermined, the efficiency coefficient and the course of expansion of the Atkinson-Miller cycle increase until it turns into the Humphrey cycle; 3) the increase of Otto engine’s efficiency using Attkinson’s means involves larger displacement if the engine was efficient from the very beginning. Originality. Attkinson’s engine may significantly lose its efficiency in energy at partial loads. If in the process of virtual design of the Atkinson engine the energy-saving advantages of Humphrey cycle become noticeable, then in the process of imaginary regulation of the thrust of an already synthesized engine of this type the advantages of this cycle are no longer traceable. Practical value. In general, the Otto engine could be considered as a still profitable technical compromise between a two-stroke engine and the Atkinson engine. On the one hand, increasing the efficiency coefficient of a rapid internal combustion engine contributes to significant fuel savings and environmental hazards reduction throughout the life cycle of a machine driven by such an energy-saving engine. But on the other hand, the implementation of the energy-saving Atkinson/Miller working cycle will be accompanied by an increase in the mass and size of the engine and will negatively affect the properties of the machine.


Keywords


rapid internal combustion engine; extended working stroke; working cycle; Atkinson-Miller engine; Otto engine; energy efficiency; efficiency

References


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Al-Sarkhi, A., Akash, B. A., Jaber, J. O., Mohsen, M. S., & Abu-Nada, E. (2002). Efficiency of Miller engine at maximum power density. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 29(8), 1159-1167. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1933(02)00444-X (in English)

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Benajes, J., Serrano, J. R., Molina, S., & Novella, R. (2009). Potential of Atkinson cycle combined with EGR for pollutant control in a HD diesel engine. Energy Conversion and Management, 50(1), 174-183. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2008.08.034 (in English)

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Demirci, O. K., Uyumaz, A., Sarıdemir, S., & Çinar, C. (2018). The Simulation, Implementation and Analysis of the Miller Cycle Using an Inlet Control Rotary Valve. International Journal of Automotive Technology (IJAET), 7(3), 107-116. DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.18245/ijaet.486408. (in English)

Ebrahimi, R. (2011). Effects of mean piston speed, equivalence ratio and cylinder wall temperature on performance of an Atkinson engine. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 53(5-6), 1289-1297. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcm.2010.12.015 (in English)

Ebrahimi, R. (2012). Performance analysis of an irreversible Miller cycle with considerations of relative air-fuel ratio and stroke length. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 36(9), 4073-4079. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2011.11.031 (in English)

Edwards, S., Frankle, G., Wirbeleit, F., & Raab, A. (1998). The Potential of a Combined Miller Cycle and Internal EGR Engine for Future Heavy Duty Truck Applications, SAE Technical Paper, 1-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/980180 (in English)

Ehleskog, M., Gjirja, S., & Denbratt, I. (2012). Effects of Variable Inlet Valve Timing and Swirl Ratio on Combustion and Emissions in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine. SAE Technical Paper, 1-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-1719 (in English)

Ebrahimi, R. (2011). Thermodynamic modeling of performance of a Miller cycle with engine speed and variable specific heat ratio of working fluid. Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 62, 2169-2176. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.camwa.2011.07.002 (in English)

Fukuzawa, Y., Kakuhama, Y., Shimoda, H., Endo, H., & Tanaka, K. (2001). Development of High Efficiency Miller Cycle Gas Engine. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, 38(3), 146-150. (in English)

Ge, Y., Chen, L., Sun, F., & Wu, C. (2005). Effects of heat transfer and variable specific heats of working fluid on performance of a Miller cycle. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 26(4), 203-214. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01430750.2005.9674991 (in English)

Ge, Y., Chen, L., Sun, F., & Wu, C. (2005). Effects of heat transfer and friction on the performance of an irreversible air-standard Miller cycle. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 32(8), 1045-1056. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2005.02.002 (in English)

Ge, Y., Chen, L., Sun, F., & Wu, C. (2005). Reciprocating heat-engine cycles. Applied Energy, 81(4), 397-408. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2004.09.007 (in English)

Gonca, G., & Hocaoglu, M. F. (2019). Performance Analysis and Simulation of a Diesel-Miller Cycle (DiMC) Engine. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 44, 5811-5824. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-019-03747-4 (in English)

Gonca, G., Sahin, B., & Ust, Y. (2015). Investigation of Heat Transfer Influences on Performance of Air-Standard Irreversible Dual-Miller Cycle. Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 29(4), 678-683. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2514/1.T4512 (in English)

Goto, T., Hatamura, K., Takizawa, S., Hayama, N., Abe, H., & Kanesaka, H. (1994). Development of V6 Miller Cycle Gasoline Engine. SAE Technical Paper, 1-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/940198 (in English)

Grab-Rogaliński, K., Szwaja, S., & Tutak, W. (2014). The Miller Cycle Based IC Engine Fuelled with a CNG/Hydrogen. Journal of KONES. Powertrain and Transport, 21(4), 137-144. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5604/12314005.1130459 (in English)

Hatamura, K., Hayakawa, M., Goto, T., & Hitomi, M. (1997). A study of the improvement effect of Miller-cycle on mean effective pressure limit for high-pressure supercharged gasoline engines. JSAE Review, 18(2), 101-106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0389-4304(96)00069-0 (in English)

Heikkilä, J., Happonen, M., Murtonen, T., Lehto, K., Sarjovaara, T., Larmi, M., … & Virtanen, A. (2012). Study of Miller timing on exhaust emissions of a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled diesel engine. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 62(11), 1305-1312. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2012.708383. (in English)

Heywood, J. B. (1988). Ideal models of engine cycles. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Education. (in English)

Higuchi, N., Sunaga, Y., Tanaka, M., & Shimada, H. (2013). Development of a New Two-Motor Plug-In Hybrid System. SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains, 2(1), 135-145. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-1476 (in English)

Kong, S. C. (2007). A study of natural gas/DME combustion in HCCI engines using CFD with detailed chemical kinetics. Fuel, 86(10), 1483-1489. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2006.11.015 (in English)

Liu, J., & Chen, J. (2010). Optimum performance analysis of a class of typical irreversible heat engines with temperature-dependent heat capacities of the working substance. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 31(2), 59-70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01430750.2010.9675103 (in English)

Martins, J., Uzuneanu, K., Ribeiro, B., & Jasasky, O. (2004). Thermodynamic Analysis of an Over-Expanded Engine. SAE Technical Paper, 1-15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-0617 (in English)

Martins, M. E. S., & Lanzanova, T. D. M. (2015). Full-load Miller cycle with ethanol and EGR: Potential benefits and challenges. Applied Thermal Engineering, 90, 274-285. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.06.086 (in English)

Mikalsen, R., Wang, Y. D., & Roskilly, A. P. (2009) A Comparison of Miller and Otto Cycle Natural Gas Engines for Small Scale CHP Applications. Applied Energy, 86(6), 922-927. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.09.021 (in English)

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Millo, F., Gianoglio B. M., & Delneri, D. (2011). Computational Analysis of Internal and External EGR Strategies Combined with Miller Cycle Concept for a Two Stage Turbocharged Medium Speed Marine Diesel Engine. SAE International Journal of Engines, 4(1), 1319-1330. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-1142 (in English)

Mo, H., Yongquan, H. Y., Xiaojian, M. X., & Zhuo, B. (2016). Investigations on the Potential of Miller Cycle for Performance Improvement of Gas Engine. Global Journal of Researches in Engineering: B Automotive Engineering, 16(1), 37-46. (in English)

Niculae, M., Clenci, A., Iorga-Simăn, V., & Niculescu, R. (2019). An Overview on the Miller-Atkinson Over-expansion Thermodynamic Cycle. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 564, 1-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/564/1/012125 (in English)

Ribeiro, B., & Martins, J. (2007). Direct Comparison of an Engine Working under Otto, Miller and Diesel Cycles: Thermodynamic Analysis and Real Engine Performance. SAE Technical Paper, 1-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-0261 (in English)

Wang, Y, Lin, L, Roskilly, A. P., Zeng, S, Huang, J, He, Y, Huang, X, Huang, H, Wei, H, Li, S, & Yang, J. (2007). An analytic study of applying Miller cycle to reduce NOx emission from petrol engine. Applied Thermal Engineering, 27(11-12), 1779-1789. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2007.01.013 (in English)

Wu, C., Puzinauskas, P. V., & Tsai, J. S. (2003). Performance analysis and optimization of a supercharged Miller cycle Otto engine. Applied Thermal Engineering, 23(5), 511-521. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-4311(02)00239-9 (in English)

Zhao, Y, & Chen, J. (2007) Performance analysis of an irreversible Miller heat engine and its optimum criteria. Applied Thermal Engineering, 27, 2051-2058. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2006.12.002 (in English)


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