THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF RAILWAY WHEEL DAMAGES AND TIRES IN OPERATION

N. A. Grischenko

Abstract


Purpose. The dependence analysis of structural changes in the metal of railway wheels and tires from indicated influences in operation, for the further development of strategy of service reliability growth. Methodology. Test materials are the details selected from railway wheels which were taken out of operation beforehand because of various damages. Micro-structural researches were made with the use of light microscope Epiquant and electron microscope. The sizing of structural elements was done by using the methods of quantitative metallography. Findings. Over the past few decades the rapid development of industry was supported by the steady growth of intensity of using railway transport. In this case simultaneous increase of load at wheel set axle, with the increase of  speed was accompanied by natural increase of the amount of cases of premature wheels and tires’ withdrawing out of operation. Railway wheel, except the formation of metal layer at rolling surface with the high defects concentration of crystal structure and first of all dislocations, falls under thermal influence from interaction with break blocks. The nature of joint influence (cold deformation and heating) on the metal rim of a wheel is conditioned by the appearance of sufficiently high gradients of structural changes that can be considered as the influence on the level of internal residual stresses. In case of the rise of volume part of carbide phase at a constant ferrite grain size, it is achieved only by the increasing of dislocation nucleation sources without changing the number of annihilation positions. In this case the accumulation of dislocations at the initial stages of plastic deformation (in metal volume in front of delta arm crack) will lead to the formation of cementite globes around certain interlocked dislocation density. In contrast the sharp increase of deformation hardening carbon steel parameters is observed. Originality. During the braking of locomotive the speed rise of metal heating at rolling surface is provided with the increase of temperatures that is enough for the beginning of phase transformations. Under the further cooling there is the formation of a number of structures formed from sliding to diffusive mechanisms. As a result the chosen areas become the centers of future metal deformations on wheels’ rolling surface and tires. Practical value. Based on the study of patterns of damages’ formation in railway wheels and tires from the peculiarities of internal metal structure and the working conditions «Classifier of defects» was developed аnd «Technical tips for determination of causes of cracks in solid-rolled railway wheels and destruction in general», which have been implemented on Ukrzaliznytsia.


Keywords


railway wheels; tires; microstructure; damage; destruction

Full Text:

PDF

References


Babich V.K, Gul Yu.P., Dolzhenkov I.Ye. Deformatsionnoye stareniye stali [Strain aging of steel]. Moscow, Metallurgiya Publ., 1972. 320 p.

Vakulenko I.A., Grishchenko N.A., Perkov O.N. Zavisimost ustalostnoy prochnosti ot strukturnogo sostoyaniya stali dlya zheleznodorozhnykh koles [The dependence of fatigue strength on the structural condition of the steel railway wheels]. Kyiv, 2007. pp. 242-244.

Vakulenko I.A. O faktorakh, vyzyvayushchikh plasticheski nestabilnoye techeniye uglerodistoy stali [The factors that cause plastically unstable flow for carbon steel]. Izvestiya VUZov. Chernaya metallurgiya – News of Universities. Ferrous Metallurgy, 1994, no. 9, pp. 27-29.

Vakulenko I.A. Struktura i svoystva uglerodistoy stali pri znakoperemennom deformirovanii [Structure and properties of carbon steel with alternating deformation]. Dnipropetrovsk, Guadeamus Publ., 2003. 94 p.

Vakulenko I.A., Perkov O.N. Tekhnologicheskiye osobennosti proizvodstva uprochnennykh zheleznodorozhnykh koles [Technological features of manufacture hardened rail wheel]. Visnyk Dnipropetrovskoho natsionalnoho universitetu zaliznychnoho transportu imeni akademika V. Lazariana [Bulletin of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan], 2008, issue 20, pp. 216-218.

Vakulenko I.A., Reydemeyster G.V., Perkov O.N. Faktory, vliyayushchiye na nadezhnost i dolgovechnost zheleznodorozhnykh koles [Factors affecting the reliability and durability of railway wheels]. Visnyk Dnipropetrovskoho natsionalnoho universitetu zaliznychnoho transportu imeni akademika V. Lazariana [Bulletin of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan], 2005, issue 9, pp. 129-132.

Vakulenko I.A. Strukturnyi analiz v materialoznavstvi [Structural analysis in materials science]. Dnipropetrovsk, Makovetskyi Publ., 2010. 124 p.

Vybor stali dlya koles – alternativy i vozmozhnosti. Obzor staley [The choice of steel for the wheel – alternatives and opportunities. Review steels]. Zheleznyye dorogi mira – Railways of the World, 2007, no. 12, pp. 38-43.

GOST 10791-2004. Kolesa tselnokatanyye. Tekhnicheskyie usloviya [GOST 10791-2004. Solid-rolled wheels. Technical conditions]. Moscow, Standartinform Publ., 2005. 27 p.

Hryshchenko M.A. Doslidzhennia prychyn vynyknennia vyshcherbyn metalu na poverkhni kochennia zaliznychnykh kolis [Research the causes of fishermen metal on the surface of the railway wheels rolling]. Visnyk Dnipropetrovskoho natsionalnoho universitetu zaliznychnoho transportu imeni akademika V. Lazariana [Bulletin of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan], 2008, issue 23, pp. 178-182.

Vakulenko I.O., Anofriiev V.H., Hryshchenko M.A., Perkov O.M. Defekty zaliznychnykh kolis [Defects of railway wheels]. Dnipropetrovsk, Makovetskyi Publ., 2009. 112 p.

Zavialov Yu.S., Kvasov, B.Y., Myroshnychenko V.L. Metody splain funktsii [Methods of Spline Functions]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1980. 352 p.

Perkov O.N., Vakulenko I.A., Razdobreyev V.G., Kuvayev V.N. K voprosu nadezhnosti i dolgovechnosti zheleznodorozhnykh koles [To the question the the reliability and durability of railway wheels]. Teoriya i praktika metallurgii – Theory and Practice of Metallurgy, 2008, no. 3, pp. 43-46.

Klasyfikatsiia nespravnostei vahonnykh kolisnykh par ta yikh elementiv [Classification of faults wagon wheelsets and their components]. Kyiv, Derzhavna administratsiia zaliznychnoho transportu Publ., 2006. 79 p.

Normy dlya rascheta i proektirovaniya vagonov zheleznykh dorog MPS kolei 1520 mm [Rules for calculation and design of кailways cars, Ministry of Railways of 1520 mm]. Moscow, GosNIIV-VNIIZhT Publ., 1996. 319 p.

Bhadeshia H.K.D.H. Bainite in steels. The University Press, Cambridge Publ., 2001. 454 p.

Moon J., Lee C., Uhm S., Lee J. Coarsening kinetics of TiN particle in a low alloyed steel in weld HAZ: Considering critical particle size. Acta Materialia, 2006, vol. 54 (4), pp. 1053-1061. doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2005.10.037

ESR 0330. Wheel Defect Manual. Engineering Standard Rolling Stock. RailCorp: Australia, 2013. 57p.

Gubenko S., Proidak Y. Investigation of Wear Mechanism of Tread During Operation of Railway Wheels. Transport Problems, 2012, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 119-125.

Gubenko S., Proidak Yu., Kozlovsky A. Influence of Nonmetallic Inclutions on Microbreaks Formation in Wheel Steel and Railway Wheels. Transport Problems, 2008, vol. 3, no. 3. pp. 77-81.


GOST Style Citations


1. Бабич, В. К. Деформационное старение стали / В. К. Бабич, Ю. П. Гуль, И. Е. Долженков. – Москва : Металлургия, 1972. – 320 с.

2. Вакуленко, И. А. Зависимость усталостной прочности от структурного состояния стали для железнодорожных колес / И. А. Вакуленко, Н. А. Грищенко, О. Н. Перков // Соврем. проблемы подготовки пр-ва заготов. пр-ва, обработки, сборки и ремонта в пром-сти и на трансп. – Киев, 2007. – С. 242–244.

3. Вакуленко, И. А. О факторах, вызывающих пластически нестабильное течение углеродистой стали / И. А. Вакуленко // Изв. ВУЗов. Черная металлургия. – 1994. – № 9. – С. 27–29.

4. Вакуленко, И. А. Структура и свойства углеродистой стали при знакопеременном деформировании / И. А. Вакуленко. – Днепропетровск : Guadeamus, 2003. – 94 с.

5. Вакуленко, И. А. Технологические особенности производства упрочненных железнодорожных колес / И. А. Вакуленко, О. Н. Перков // Вісн. Дніпропетр. нац. ун-ту залізн. трансп. ім. акад. В. Лазаряна. – Дніпропетровськ, 2008. – Вип. 20. – С. 216–218.

6. Вакуленко, И. А. Факторы, влияющие на надёжность и долговечность железнодорожных колёс / И. А. Вакуленко, Г. В. Рейдемейстер, О. Н. Перков // Вісн. Дніпропетр. нац. ун-ту залізн. трансп. ім. акад. В. Лазаряна. – Дніпропетровськ, 2005. – Вип. 9. – С. 129–132.

7. Вакуленко, І. О. Структурний аналіз в матеріалознавстві : навч. посіб. / І. О. Вакуленко. – Дніпропетровськ : Маковецький, 2010. – 124 с.

8. Выбор стали для колес – альтернативы и возможности. Обзор сталей // Ж.-д. мира. – 2007. – № 12. – С. 38–43.

9. ГОСТ 10791-2004. Колеса цельнокатаные. Технические условия. – Взамен ГОСТ 10791-89 ; введ. 2005-01-07. – Москва : Изд-во стандартов, 2005. – 27 с.

10. Грищенко, М. А. Дослідження причин виникнення вищербин металу на поверхні кочення залізничних коліс / М. А. Грищенко // Вісн. Дніпропетр. нац. ун-ту залізн. трансп. ім. акад. В. Лазаряна. – Дніпропетровськ, 2008. – Вип. 23. – С. 178–182.

11. Дефекти залізничних коліс : монографія / І. О. Вакуленко, В. Г. Анофрієв, М. А. Грищенко, О. М. Перков. – Дніпропетровськ : Маковецький, 2009. – 112 c.
 

12. Завьялов, Ю. С. Методы сплайн функций / Ю. С. Завьялов, Б. И. Квасов, В. Л. Мирошниченко. – Москва : Наука, 1980. – 352 с.

13. К вопросу надежности и долговечности железнодорожных колес / О. Н. Перков, И. А. Вакуленко, В. Г. Раздобреев, В. Н. Куваев // Теория и практика металлургии. – 2008. – № 3. – С. 43–46.
 

14. Класифікація несправностей вагонних колісних пар та їх елементів. – Київ : Держ. адм. залізн. трансп. України, 2006. – 79 с.

15. Нормы для расчета и проектирования вагонов железных дорог МПС колеи1520 мм. – Москва : ГосНИИВ-ВНИИЖТ, 1996. – 319 с.
 

16 Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H. Bainite in steels / H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia. – Cambridge : The University Press, 2001. – 454 p.16. 

17. Coarsening kinetics of TiN particle in a low alloyed steel in weld HAZ: Considering critical particle size / J. Moon, C. Lee,S. Uhm, J. Lee // Acta Materialia. – 2006. – Vol. 54 (4). – P. 1053–1061. doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2005.10.037

18. ESR 0330. Wheel Defect Manual / Engineering Standard Rolling Stock. –Australia: RailCorp. – 2013. – 57 p.

19. Gubenko, S. Investigation of Wear Mechanism of Tread During Operation of Railway Wheels / S. Gubenko, Y. Proidak // Transport Problems. – 2012. – Vol. 7, № 3. – P. 119–125.

20. Influence of Nonmetallic Inclutions on Microbreaks Formation in Wheel Steel and Railway Wheels / S. Gubenko, Yu. Proidak, A. Kozlovsky [et al.] // Transport Problems. – 2008. – Vol. 3, № 3. – P. 77–81.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.15802/stp2015/38252

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

ISSN 2307–3489 (Print)
ІSSN 2307–6666 (Online)